Accounting policies

The consolidated and separate financial statements (financial statements) have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), the interpretations adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board, the SAICA Financial Reporting Guides as issued by the Accounting Practices Committee and the Financial Reporting Pronouncements as issued by the Financial Reporting Standards Council and in terms of the requirements of the Companies Act of South Africa.

1. Basis of preparation

The consolidated and separate financial statements are prepared on the historical cost basis, except that derivative financial instruments, financial instruments held-for-trading and financial instruments classified as available-for-sale are stated at their fair value.

The preparation of consolidated and separate financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities, income and expenses. Although estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances (the results of which form the basis of making the judgements about carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources), the actual outcome may differ from these estimates.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised, if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

Judgements made in the application of IFRS that have had an effect on the financial statements and estimates with a risk of adjustment in the next year are discussed in note 41.

Except as detailed below, the accounting policies have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these financial statements. The financial statements are presented in South African rand, which is the Group’s functional currency. All financial information has been rounded to the nearest thousand unless stated otherwise.

The principal accounting policies set out below apply to both the consolidated and separate financial statements.

2. New and revised accounting standards

There were no changes to the Group’s accounting policies during the year.

Details of new standards and interpretations not yet effective that may apply to the Group are contained in note 44 to the financial statements.

3. Basis of consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries. Subsidiaries are entities controlled by the Group. Control is achieved when the Company has the power over an investee, or has rights, to a variable return from its involvement with an investee; and has the ability to use its power to affect its returns.

The Company reassesses whether or not it controls an investee if facts and circumstances indicate that there are changes to one or more of these elements.

When the Company has less than a majority of the voting rights of an investee, it considers that it has power over the investee when the voting rights are sufficient to give it the practical ability to direct the relevant activities of the investee unilaterally. The Company considers all relevant facts and circumstances in assessing whether or not the Company’s voting rights in an investee are sufficient to give it power, including the size of the Company’s holding of voting rights relative to the size and dispersion of holdings of the other vote holders; potential voting rights held by the Company, other vote holders or other parties; rights arising from other contractual arrangements; and any additional facts and circumstances that indicate that the Company has, or does not have, the current ability to direct the relevant activities at the time that decisions need to be made, including voting patterns at previous shareholders’ meetings.

The results of subsidiaries acquired or disposed of during the year are included in the consolidated income statement from the date the Company gains control until the date when the Company ceases to control the subsidiary.

Profit or loss and each component of other comprehensive income are attributed to the owners of the Company and to the non-controlling interests. Where necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of subsidiaries to bring the accounting policies used in line with the Group’s accounting policies.

All intra-group assets and liabilities, equity, income, expenses and cash flows relating to transactions between the members of the Group are eliminated on consolidation.

Non-controlling interests in subsidiaries are identified separately from the Group’s equity therein. Those interests of non-controlling shareholders that are present ownership interests entitling their holders to a proportionate share of net assets upon liquidation may initially be measured at fair value or at the non-controlling interests’ proportionate share of the fair value of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets. The choice of measurement is made on an acquisition-by-acquisition basis. Other non-controlling interests are initially measured at fair value. Subsequent to acquisition, the carrying amount of non-controlling interests is the amount of those interests at initial recognition plus the non-controlling interests’ share of subsequent changes in equity. Total comprehensive income is attributed to non-controlling interests even if this results in the non-controlling interests having a deficit balance.

Changes in the Group’s interests in subsidiaries that do not result in a loss of control are accounted for as equity transactions. The carrying amount of the Group’s interests and the non-controlling interests are adjusted to reflect the changes in their relative interests in the subsidiaries. Any difference between the amount by which the non-controlling interests are adjusted and the fair value of the consideration paid or received is recognised directly in equity and attributed to the owners of the Company.

When the Group loses control of a subsidiary, the gain or loss on disposal recognised in profit or loss is calculated as the difference between either the aggregate of the fair value of the consideration received and the fair value of any retained interest and the previous carrying amount of the assets (including goodwill), less liabilities of the subsidiary and any non-controlling interests. All amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income in relation to that subsidiary are accounted for as if the Group had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities of the subsidiary (ie reclassified to profit or loss or transferred to another category of equity as specified/permitted by applicable IFRS).

The Company carries its investments in subsidiaries at cost less accumulated impairment losses. Investments subject to Group reorganisations, which are between the Company and its subsidiaries, are undertaken at fair value and increase the cost of investments.

4. Puttable non-controlling interests

Put options held by non-controlling interests in the Group's subsidiaries entitle the non-controlling interest to sell its interest in the subsidiary to the Group at predetermined values and on contracted dates. In such cases the Group consolidates the non-controlling interests' share of the equity in the subsidiary and recognises the fair value of the non-controlling interest's put option, being the present value of the estimated future purchase price, as a financial liability in the statement of financial position. In raising this liability, the non-controlling interest is derecognised and any excess or shortfall is charged or realised directly in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity.

The unwinding of the present value discount on these liabilities is recorded within finance charges in the income statement using the effective interest rate method. The financial liability is fair valued at the end of each financial year and any changes in the value of the liability as a result of changes in assumptions used to estimate the future purchase price are recorded directly in retained income in the statement of changes in equity.

5. Revenue recognition

The sale of goods is recognised when significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods are transferred to the buyer, recovery of the consideration is considered probable, the associated costs and possible return of goods can be estimated reliably, and there is no continuing management involvement with the goods.

Revenue from services rendered is recognised in the income statement in proportion to the stage of completion of the transaction at the statement of financial position date. The stage of completion is assessed by reference to the terms of the contracts.

Revenue relating to banking activities consists primarily of margins earned on the purchase and sale of foreign exchange products and general commissions and transaction fees and is recognised when the services are provided. Net profits and losses on the revaluation of foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities are also included in revenue.

In the event that a profit or loss arises from full maintenance motor contracts, this is recognised on termination of individual contracts after taking cognisance of any additional costs required. Provision is made for known losses during the contract period on an individual contract basis.

Insurance premiums are stated before deducting reinsurance and commission.

Finance income comprises interest receivable on funds invested. Finance income is recognised on an accrual basis, taking account of the principal outstanding and the effective rate over the period to maturity, when it is determined that such income will accrue to the Group.

6. Distributions to shareholders

Distributions to shareholders are accounted for once they have been approved by the board of directors.

7. Finance charges

Finance charges comprise interest payable on borrowings calculated using the effective interest rate method. The interest expense component of finance lease payments is recognised in the income statement using the effective interest rate method.

8. Cash and cash equivalents

For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand, deposits held on call with banks net of bank overdrafts and investment in money market instruments, all of which are available for use by the Group unless otherwise stated.

9. Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are reflected at cost to the Group, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Land is stated at cost. The present value of the estimated cost of dismantling and removing items and restoring the site in which they are located is provided for as part of the cost of the asset. Depreciation is provided for on the straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the property, plant and equipment to anticipated residual values. Estimate useful lives are:

Buildings Up to 50 years
Leasehold premises Over the period of the lease
Plant and equipment 5 to 20 years
Office equipment, furniture and fittings 3 to 15 years
Vehicles and craft 3 to 15 years
Vessels 28 to 55 years
Rental and full maintenance lease assets Over the period of the contract
Capitalised leased assets The same basis as owned assets

Residual values, depreciation method and useful lives are reassessed annually.

Where parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives to the item itself, these parts are depreciated over their individual estimated useful lives.

10. Leases

Leases that transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the underlying asset to the Group are classified as finance leases. Assets acquired in terms of finance leases are capitalised at the lower of fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments at inception of the lease, and depreciated over the estimated useful life of the asset. The capital element of future obligations under the leases is included as a liability in the statement of financial position. Lease payments are allocated using the effective interest rate method to determine the lease finance cost, which is charged against income over the lease period, and the capital repayment, which reduces the liability to the lessor.

Leases where the lessor retains the risks and rewards of ownership of the underlying asset are classified as operating leases. Operating leases, which have a fixed determinable escalation, are charged against income on a straight-line basis. Leases with contingent escalations are expensed as and when incurred.

11. Goodwill

Goodwill arising on acquisition of a business is carried at cost, as established at the date of the acquisition of the business, less accumulated impairment losses.

For the purposes of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to each of the Group’s cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the business combination. Goodwill is monitored at an operational segment level.

12. Intangible assets

Software development costs are capitalised and are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

Development cost and other intangible assets acquired by the Group are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

Expenditure on research, internally generated goodwill and brands is recognised in the income statement as an expense when incurred.

Subsequent expenditure on capitalised intangible assets is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. All other expenditure is expensed as incurred.

Amortisation is charged to the income statement on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of intangible assets unless such lives are indefinite. Intangible assets with an indefinite useful life are tested for impairment at each statement of financial position date. Other intangible assets are amortised from the date they are available for use. The estimated useful lives are currently:

Patents, trademarks, tradenames and other intangibles 3 to 12 years or indefinite life
Computer software 3 to 8 years

Useful lives are also examined on an annual basis and adjustments, where applicable, are made on a prospective basis.

13. Impairment of assets

The carrying value of tangible and intangible assets are reviewed annually to assess whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated. Where the carrying value exceeds the estimated recoverable amount, such assets are written down to their recoverable amount.

The recoverable amount of cash-generating units to which goodwill is allocated is estimated annually each year. For intangible assets that have an indefinite useful life and intangible assets that are not yet available for use, the recoverable amount is estimated at each statement of financial position date.

Impairment losses are recognised in the income statement.

Impairment losses recognised in respect of cash-generating units are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to cash-generating units and then to reduce the carrying amount of the other assets in the unit on a pro rata basis.

A cash-generating unit is not larger than any operational segment. Refer to accounting policy 11.

Financial assets are impaired where there is objective evidence that, as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the financial asset, the estimated future cash flows of the investment have been impacted.

An impairment loss in respect of an available-for-sale financial asset is calculated by reference to its current fair value. For unlisted shares classified as available-for-sale, a significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of the security below its cost is considered to be objective evidence of impairment.

For all other financial assets, objective evidence of impairment could include:

  • significant financial difficulty of the counterparty; or
  • default in interest or principal payments; or
  • it becoming probable that the counterparty will enter bankruptcy or financial reorganisation.

When a decline in the fair value of an available-for-sale financial asset has been recognised directly in equity and there is objective evidence that the asset is impaired, the cumulative loss that had been recognised directly in equity is recognised in the income statement even though the financial asset has not been derecognised. The amount of the cumulative loss that is recognised in the income statement is the difference between the acquisition cost and current fair value, less any impairment loss on that financial asset previously recognised in the income statement.

The recoverable amount of the Group's investments in held-to-maturity securities and receivables carried at amortised cost is calculated as the present value of estimated future cash flows, discounted at the original effective interest rate (the effective interest rate is computed on initial recognition of these financial assets). Receivables with a short duration are not discounted. Individually significant financial assets are tested for impairment on an individual basis. The remaining financial assets are assessed collectively in groups that share similar credit risk characteristics.

In respect of trade receivables, receivables that are assessed not to be impaired individually are subsequently assessed for impairment on a collective basis. Objective evidence of impairment for a portfolio of receivables could include the Group's past experience of collecting payments, an increase in the number of delayed payments in the portfolio past the average credit period, as well as observable changes in national or local economic conditions that correlate with default on receivables.

The recoverable amount of other assets is the greater of their fair value less costs to sell and their value-in-use. In assessing their value-in-use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset.

An impairment loss in respect of a held-to-maturity security or receivable carried at amortised cost is reversed if the subsequent increase in recoverable amount can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognised.

An impairment loss in respect of an investment in an equity instrument classified as available-for-sale is not reversed through the income statement. If the fair value of a debt instrument classified as available-for-sale increases and the increase can be objectively related to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognised in the income statement, the impairment loss is reversed, with the amount of the reversal recognised in the income statement.

The carrying amount of the financial asset is reduced by the impairment loss directly for all financial assets with the exception of trade receivables and banking advances, where the carrying amount is reduced through the use of an impairment allowance account. When a trade receivable or banking advance is considered uncollectible, it is written off against the impairment allowance account. Subsequent recoveries of amounts previously written off are credited against the allowance account. Changes in the carrying amount of the impairment allowance account are recognised in the income statement.

Impairment losses in respect of goodwill are not reversed.

In respect of other assets, impairment losses recognised in prior periods are assessed at each reporting date for any indications that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. Impairment losses are reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount.

Impairment losses are reversed only to the extent that the asset's carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.

14. Taxation

Income taxation comprises current and deferred tax. An income tax expense is recognised in profit or loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognised directly in equity, in which case it is recognised in equity.

Current taxation comprises tax payable calculated on the basis of the expected taxable income for the year, using the tax rates enacted or substantially enacted at the financial position date, and any adjustment of tax payable for previous years.

Deferred taxation is charged to the income statement except to the extent that it relates to a transaction that is recognised directly in equity, or a business combination that is an acquisition. The effects on deferred taxation of any changes in tax rates is recognised in the income statement, except to the extent that it relates to items previously charged or credited directly to equity.

A deferred taxation asset is recognised to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the associated unused tax losses and deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised.

15. Associates

An associate is a company over which the Group has significant influence, but not control. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of a company but is not control over those policies.

The equity method of accounting for associates is applied in the Group financial statements. In applying the equity method, account is taken of the Group's share of accumulated retained earnings and movements in reserves from the effective dates on which the companies became associates and up to the effective dates of disposal. In the event of associates making losses, the Group recognises the losses to the extent of the Group's exposure.

The Company carries its investment in associates at cost less any accumulated impairment losses.

16. Foreign operations

Assets and liabilities of foreign operations, including goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on consolidation, are translated into South African rand at rates of exchange ruling at the statement of financial position date. Income, expenditure and cash flow items are translated into South African rand at rates approximating to the foreign exchange rates ruling at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange differences arising on translation are recognised directly in equity as a foreign currency translation reserve. When a foreign operation is disposed of, in part or in full, the relevant amount in the foreign currency translation reserve is transferred to the income statement.

17. Financial instruments

Financial instruments are initially measured at fair value plus, for instruments not carried at fair value through profit and loss, any directly attributable transaction costs.

An instrument is measured at fair value through profit or loss if it is held-for-trading, is a derivative or is designated as such upon initial recognition.

A financial asset is classified as held-for-trading if it has been acquired principally for the purpose of selling in the near future or it has been part of an identified portfolio of financial instruments that the Group manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-making.

Financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value, with any resultant gain or loss being recognised in the income statement. The gain or loss recognised in the income statement excludes the interest and dividends earned on the financial asset, which are separately disclosed as such in the income statement. Held-for-trading financial instruments are measured at cost if the fair value cannot be reliably determined.

Financial instruments classified as available-for-sale financial assets are carried at fair value with any resultant gain or loss, other than impairment losses and foreign exchange gains and losses on monetary items, being recognised directly in equity. When these investments are derecognised, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised directly in equity is recognised in profit or loss. Where these investments are interest-bearing, interest calculated using the effective interest rate method is recognised in profit or loss.

Listed government bonds held in terms of statutory requirements are accounted for as available-for-sale financial assets.

If the Group has the positive intent and ability to hold debt securities to maturity, then they are classified as held-to-maturity. Investments that meet the criteria for classification as held-to-maturity financial assets are carried at amortised cost.

Where the instrument is not classified as one of the above, it is carried at amortised cost.

Listed and unlisted investments are classified as held-for-trading investments at fair value through profit or loss or available-for-sale financial assets. Fair value of listed investments is calculated by reference to stock and bond exchange quoted selling prices at the close of business on the statement of financial position date. Fair value of unlisted investments is determined by using appropriate valuation models.

Trade and other receivables originated by the Group or Company are stated at amortised cost less an allowance for impairment losses.

Cash and cash equivalents are measured at fair value, based on the relevant exchange rates at statement of financial position date.

Financial liabilities other than derivatives are recognised at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method.

Derivative instruments are measured at fair value through profit and loss.

Where a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedge, the effective part of the gains or losses from remeasuring the hedging instruments to fair value are initially recognised directly in equity. If the hedged firm commitment or forecast transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or liability, the cumulative amount recognised in equity up to the transaction date is adjusted against the initial measurement of the non-financial asset or liability. The ineffective part of any gain or loss is recognised in the income statement immediately. For other cash flow hedges, the cumulative amount recognised in equity is included in net profit or loss in the period when the commitment or forecast transaction affects profit or loss.

Where the hedging instrument or hedge relationship is terminated but the hedged transaction is still expected to occur, the cumulative unrealised gain or loss at that point remains in equity and is recognised in accordance with the aforementioned policy when the transaction occurs. If the hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative unrealised gain or loss is recognised in the income statement immediately.

Financial instruments have been grouped into classes for the purpose of financial instrument risk disclosure. The classes are the segments as disclosed in the segmental report as the operations within each segment have similar types of risks.

18. Banking advances

Advances are stated at amortised cost after the deduction of amounts that, in the opinion of the directors, are required as specific and portfolio impairments. Specific impairments are raised for doubtful advances, including amounts in respect of interest not being serviced and after taking security values into account, and are deducted from advances where the outstanding balance exceeds the value of the security held. A portfolio impairment based on historic experience is raised to cover doubtful advances, which may not be specifically identified at the statement of financial position date. The specific and portfolio impairments made during the year are charged to the income statement.

19. Vehicle rental fleet

The Bidvest Car Rental fleet is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is provided on a straight-line basis to write off the cost of the vehicles to their residual value over their estimated useful life of between nine and 12 months.

20. Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and estimated net realisable value. Estimated net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses. The cost of raw materials, finished goods, parts and accessories is determined on either the first in, first out or average cost basis. The cost of manufactured inventory and work-in-progress includes materials and parts, direct labour, other direct costs and includes an appropriate portion of overheads, but excludes interest expense.

Vehicles and vehicle parts purchased in terms of manufacturers’ standard franchise agreements or floorplan facilities are recognised as assets when received as this is when significant risks and rewards have been transferred. This policy is applied irrespective of the fact that certain agreements provide that the legal ownership of this inventory shall remain with the supplier or floorplan provider until the purchase price has been paid.

21. Treasury shares

Shares in the Company held by its subsidiary and The Bidvest Incentive Scheme are classified in the Group’s shareholders’ interest as treasury shares. These shares are treated as a deduction from the issued and weighted average number of shares. The cost price of the shares is presented as a deduction from total equity. Distributions received on treasury shares are eliminated on consolidation.

22. Foreign currencies

Transactions in foreign currencies are translated at the rates of exchange ruling at the transaction date. Monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currencies are translated at the rates of exchange ruling at the statement of financial position date. Translation differences are recognised in the income statement.

23. Share-based payments

The Bidvest Incentive Scheme grants share appreciation rights to acquire shares in the Company to employees. The fair value of appreciation rights granted is recognised as an employee expense with a corresponding increase in equity. The fair value is measured at grant date and spread over the period during which the employees become unconditionally entitled to the options. The fair value of the appreciation right is measured using a binomial model, taking into account the terms and conditions upon which the appreciation rights were granted. The amount recognised as an expense is adjusted to reflect the actual number of appreciation rights that vest except where staff are unable to meet the scheme’s employment requirements.

In terms of the conditional share plan scheme, a conditional right to a share is awarded to executive directors subject to performance and vesting conditions. The fair value of services received in return for the conditional share awards has been determined by multiplying the number of conditional share awards expected to vest by the share price at the date of the award less discounted by anticipated future distribution flows.

24. Employee benefits

Leave benefits due to employees are recognised as a liability in the financial statements.

The Group’s liability for post-retirement benefits, accruing to past and current employees in terms of defined benefit schemes, is actuarially calculated. Where the plan is funded, the obligation is reduced by the fair value of the plan assets. Unfunded obligations are recognised as a liability in the financial statements.

The Group’s obligation for post-retirement medical aid to past and current employees is actuarially determined and provided for in full.

The projected unit credit method is used to determine the present value of the defined benefit obligations and the related current service cost and, where applicable, past service cost.

Actuarial gains or losses in respect of defined benefit plans are recognised in other comprehensive income.

However, when the actuarial calculation results in a benefit to the Group, the recognised asset is limited to the net total of any unrecognised past service costs and the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan.

Past service costs are recognised in the income statement in the period of a plan amendment.

Liabilities for employee benefits which are not expected to be settled within 12 months are discounted using the market yields at the statement of financial position date on high-quality bonds with terms that most closely match the terms of maturity of the related liabilities.

Contributions to defined contribution pension plans are recognised as an expense in the income statement as incurred.

25. Short-term insurance

Insurance contracts are those contracts under which the Company (as insurer) accepts significant insurance risk from another party (the policyholder) by agreeing to compensate the policyholder or other beneficiary if a specified uncertain future event (the insured event) adversely affects them. Short-term insurance is provided in terms of benefits under short-term policies which cover motor, property, travel and warranty.

Receipts and payments under investment contracts are not classified as insurance transactions in the income statement but instead are deposit accounted in the statement of financial position in accordance with IAS 39. The deposits liability recognised in the statement of financial position represents the expected amounts payable to the holders of the insurance contract. Claims incurred consist of claims paid during the financial year, together with the movement in the provision for outstanding claims and are charged to income as incurred. The provision for outstanding claims comprise the Company's estimate of the undiscounted ultimate cost of settling all claims incurred but unpaid at statement of financial position date, whether reported or not. Related anticipated reinsurance recoveries are disclosed separately as assets.

Premiums are earned from the date the risk attaches, over the indemnity period, based on the pattern of the risk underwritten. Unearned premiums, which represent the proportion of premiums written in the current year which relate to risks that have not expired by the end of the financial year, are calculated on a time proportionate basis. Deferred acquisition costs are recognised on a basis consistent with the related provisions for earned premiums. A provision for claims arising from events that occurred before the close of the accounting period, but which have not been reported to the Company by that date is maintained. The calculation is based on the preceding six years' insurance premium revenue per insurance category multiplied by percentages as specified in the Short-Term Insurance Act.

26. Life assurance

Insurance contracts are those contracts under which the Company (as insurer) accepts significant insurance risk from another party (the policyholder) by agreeing to compensate the policyholder or other beneficiary if a specified uncertain future event (the insured event) adversely affects them. Life assurance benefits are provided in terms of individual credit life contracts. These contracts are decreasing term assurance designed to pay outstanding loans provided by finance houses to purchasers of motor vehicles. The outstanding loan is settled (subject to certain limits) following death or disability of the contract holder. In addition, there is a dread disease, retrenchment and funeral benefit. Policyholder liabilities under insurance contracts, representing the liability in respect of unmatured policies, are valued in terms of the Financial Soundness Valuation (FSV) basis contained in PGN104.

Receipts and payments under investment contracts are not classified as insurance transactions in the income statement but instead are deposit accounted in the statement of financial position, in accordance with IAS 39. The deposit's liability recognised in the statement of financial position represents the expected amounts payable to the holders of the insurance contract. Claims expenses are charged to the income statement as incurred based on the liability in terms of the policy at the date of the claim.

Contracts entered into by the Company with reinsurers under which the Company is compensated for losses on one or more contracts issued by the Company are classified as reinsurance contracts held. The benefits to which the Company is entitled under its reinsurance contracts are recognised as reinsurance assets. These consist of short-term balances due to/from reinsurers, as well as longer-term receivables (classified as reinsurance assets) that are dependent on the expected claims and benefits arising under the related insurance contracts. Amounts recoverable from/due to reinsurers are measured consistently with the amounts associated with the insurance contracts and in accordance with the terms of each contract. Reinsurance liabilities are primarily premiums payable and are recognised as an expense when due. The Company assesses its reinsurance assets for impairment on an annual basis. If there is objective evidence that the reinsurance asset is impaired, the Company reduces the carrying amount of the reinsurance asset to its recoverable amount and recognises the impairment loss in the income statement. The Company gathers the objective evidence that a reinsurance asset is impaired using the same basis adopted for financial assets held at amortised cost.

27. Provisions

Provisions are recognised when the Group has a legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, for which it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will occur, and where a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Where the effect of discounting is material, provisions are discounted. The discount rate used is a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability.

A provision for onerous contracts is recognised when the expected benefits to be derived by the Group from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net costs of continuing the contract. Before a provision is established, the Group recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.

28. Segmental reporting

The reportable segments of the Group have been identified based on the nature of the businesses. This basis is representative of the internal structure for management purposes.

“Segmental operating profit” includes revenue and expenses directly relating to a business segment but excludes net finance charges and taxation, which cannot be allocated to any specific segment. Share-based payment costs are also excluded from the result as this is not a criteria used in the management of the reportable segments.

“Segmental trading profit” is defined as operating profit excluding items of a capital nature and is the basis on which management’s performance is assessed. Segment operating assets and liabilities include property, plant and equipment, investments, inventories, trade and other receivables, trade and other payables, banking assets and liabilities, insurance funds and post-retirement obligations but excludes cash, borrowings, current taxation and deferred taxation.